The term “tundra” refers to a specific area dominated by cold temperatures and high altitudes. The tundra biome is one of the world’s harshest, but not so harsh that it can’t sustain plant life. More than 1,700 different plant and animal species are found in the tundra.
The tundra has only approximately ten days’ worth of growth time, though the climate thrives with life. It is not ideal for humans but is perfect for the creatures that call it their natural habitat.
Conditions in the tundra are unlike anywhere else in the world. Temperatures lower into the extremes and might plummet to as low as -30 degrees Fahrenheit.
Most Fascinating Tundra Plants in the World
1. Alpine Forget-Me-Not (Myosotis alpestris)
The Alpine Forget-Me-Not is a popular ornamental plant throughout the United States today, but it is native to the Alpine tundra. It is the state flower of Alaska.
They are seen in different parts of the world because of their ability to adapt to other biomes. There are 71 different types of Alpine forget-me-not.
See Related: Fascinating Facts About Wetlands
2. Alpine Foxtail (Alopecurus magellanicus)
The Alpine Foxtail sounds like a variety of flowers, but it is a type of alpine tundra grass. Because its seeds weigh down the tips, this plant is known as the foxtail.
Wild foxtail exists all over the world, but this particular type grows best in harsh environments. The common foxtail is considered an undesirable garden plant outside the alpine tundra.
See Related: Home Wind Turbines
3. Arctic Moss (Calliergon giganteum)
Moss is a type of plant species that thrives in the Arctic tundra. A large chunk of tundra plants is different types of moss. Arctic moss grows in large clusters, also known as giant spearmoss.
It has adapted to grow in the Arctic tundra. While they still require sunlight, they do not need as much compared to other moss.
Arctic moss also requires very little soil to grow. It attaches itself to water rather than soil.
See Related: Is Water Resource Renewable?
4. Arctic Willow (Salix arctica)
The Arctic willow is a type of willow tree found in the tundra biome. They have adapted to survive extremely cold temperatures to make it through the worst of the tundra’s harsh climates.
Native North American Arctic willows can grow 10 to 20 feet long. Its shallow roots help to protect it from freezing temperatures. They also act as a natural pesticide against tundra insects.
See Related: Best Composting Books You Need to Know
5. Bearberry (Arcostaphylos spp)
Bearberry describes three different berry species that have adapted to grow in the tundra under lower temperatures. The common bearberry grows well under rough tundra conditions and can adapt to growing outside effortlessly.
Common bearberry is recommended as a natural remedy for urinary tract infections. Its extract is also popular in cosmetics. The average bearberry plant grows between 6 to 12 inches.
See Related: Best States for Sustainable Living
6. Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis)
Bunchberry plants are native to Asia and North America, growing well in colder tundra conditions. They are also found in other world biomes.
They are also called Canadian dwarf cornel, creeping dogwood, and crackerberry. Bunchberry dogwood plants are bushy and close to the ground. It grows no more than 8 to 10 inches high.
See Related: Best Conservation Posters
7. Moss Campion (Silene acaulis)
Moss campion is a pink-colored flower native to Eurasia and North America. Its name is based on its growth pattern that forms a distinct mat, unlike various moss types.
It is well-adapted to growing in a colder biome, with a low-growing shape that protects the plant in the tundra’s harsh conditions. It is not edible, but its presence helps to support exceptional tundra wildlife.
See Related: Largest National Parks in the World
8. Caribou/Reindeer Moss (Cladonia rangiferina)
Caribou moss is one of the many types of moss that you’ll find in the biomes. It grows well under the tundra’s cold blanket but is adaptable everywhere.
It’s also known as Reindeer Moss because reindeer in tundra landscapes have been flocking to Caribou Moss for centuries. Reindeer moss grows in different colors and is a common ornamental addition to gardens.
See Related: Solar vs Wind Energy: What’s the Difference?
9. Cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus)
Cloudberry occurs naturally in the tundra biome, known as a flavorful and edible berry that could match a raspberry. They are creeping bushes close to the ground for plant protection.
It’s a versatile berry type, though not everyone can say they’ve tasted one. Cloudberry plants are also called salmonberries, bakeberries, or baked apple berries.
See Related: Coniferous Trees Response to Climate Change and Conservation
10. Cottongrass (Eriophorum callitrix)
Cottongrass is a plant that occurs throughout the world’s tundra and subarctic biomes. It flourishes under harsh conditions found in peat bogs far outside the tundra.
Its name comes from its “fluffy” seed pods. Cotton grass is used industrially to make wicks and paper. Technically, it is not a type of cotton, but a low-maintenance ornamental grass.
See Related: What is Biomass Energy: Pros and Cons of this Resouce
11. Diamond Leaf Willow (Salix planifolia)
The Diamond Leaf Willow is a fascinating shrub that grows best in tundra climates, though it grows in small pockets of the United States. It is native to the North American tundra, where it is called Sura.
Diamond Willows, despite their name, grow only to a height of 10 feet. Like most plants in the biome, they remain close to the ground to protect them throughout their growth phase.
See Related: Important Erosion Pros and Cons You Need to Know
12. Eightpetal Mountain-Avens (Dryas octopetala)
The Eightpetal Mountain Avens is a type of flowering rose native to the tundra, which is also called the white dryad. Its name comes from its flower’s shape with eight petals.
The Eightpetal mountain avens is also the national flower of Iceland. It is used to make herbal tea, like most roses.
See Related: Conservation vs Preservation
13. Labrador Tea (Rhododendron groenlandicum)
Labrador tea flower is native to the tundra of New Hampshire, though it can be found almost all over the world due to its popularity. The term describes three different flowers, all types of the same species.
It grows happily in the tundra biome, where it stays close to the ground to protect itself from strong winds. It is used to make herbal tea, though it should be used with extreme care. It contains ledol, which can cause cramps and paralysis.
See Related: Are Coffee Filters Compostable?
14. Lingonberry (Vaccinum vitis-idaea)
The Lingonberry is native to the tundra biomes in the Northern Hemisphere and found in nature throughout most of the world’s northern stretch. It is similar to cranberries in look, size, and taste, though it has adapted to survive extreme cold and wind over time.
Lingonberry is known by many names, including cowberry and mountain cranberry. It is popular, and you can find hundreds of recipes for lingonberries.
See Related: Green Revolution Pros and Cons
15. Northern Redcurrent (Ribes triste)
The Northern Redcurrant is native to the world’s most northern biomes and is the perfect plant to survive the extreme cold of the tundra ecology. They grow close to the ground like most other tundra plants and produce edible berries, unlike the regular currant berry.
See Related: Different Types of Habitats Around the World
16. Snow Gentian (Gentiana nivalis)
The Snow Gentian flowering plant grows best in a cold climate. Gentian sage is edible with anti-inflammatory and immunity-boosting effects. More research says Gentian might help support the body’s most important organs.
Snow Gentian survives the cold because it stays closer to the ground. There are different Gentian types, but Snow Gentian is unique.
See Related: Why Should We Care About Climate Change?
17. Pasque Flower (Pulsatilla rununculales)
The Pasque flower belongs to the buttercup family, but it is one of the few that grows happily in cold winters. They are found in different variations, though some of them can be harmful to humans and animals.
While Pasque flowers are great to look at, they should not find their way into your tea. It is one of the first flowers to bloom in the tundra’s spring, with the name being a literal translation of the word Passover.
See Related: Best Books on Sustainable Living
18. Polar Grass (Arctagrosis latifolia)
Polar grass is one of the very few grass types that you might find in the tundra biome, and it has adapted to grow in extreme climates. Polar grasses are like polar bears.
It’s one of the only types of grass that grows happily in the tundra. However, its current conservation status is sensitive.
See Related: Energy Efficient TVs
19. Purple Mountain Saxifrage (Saxifraga oppositifolia)
Purple Mountain Saxifrage is a vibrant purple flower native to the world’s Arctic and tundra biomes. It prefers to grow at high altitudes outside the tundra in many mountainous areas.
Purple saxifrage is the most common name for it. It is an edible plant for humans, though it also makes up the diet of some tundra animals like Arctic hares.
See Related: Best Climate Change Jobs
20. Tundra Rose (Potentilla fruticosa)
Tundra roses flowering plants grow best in tundra conditions and aren’t seen outside of the extreme cold that often. They are bright yellow when they flower.
They are members of the rose family that do well in the tundra. Tundra rose survives the tundra because of their root system and closeness to the ground.
What plants are in the Arctic tundra?
Arctic tundra plants are the types of vegetation that grow in the cold, dry, and treeless regions of the Arctic. These plants are adapted to survive in extreme conditions, such as permafrost, strong winds, and limited nutrients. Some common plant species in the Arctic tundra include mosses, lichens, sedges, and dwarf shrubs like Arctic willow and heather.
What are some facts about plants in the Arctic tundra?
Arctic tundra plants are plants adapted to survive in the harsh conditions of the Arctic tundra, a cold, dry, and windy biome located in the northernmost regions of the Earth. Due to the short growing season and lack of nutrients, these plants are typically small, low-growing, and have shallow roots. Some common types of Arctic tundra plants include mosses, lichens, dwarf shrubs, and grasses.
What kind of plants grow in tundra climate zones?
Arctic tundra plants grow in the cold and harsh conditions of the Arctic tundra biome. These plants are adapted to survive in low temperatures, permafrost, and short growing seasons. They include low-growing shrubs, grasses, mosses, and lichens. They play a crucial role in the Arctic ecosystem by providing food and shelter for animals such as caribou, muskoxen, and arctic hares.
What is the most common plant in the Arctic tundra?
The most common plant in the Arctic tundra is the dwarf willow (Salix herbacea). This plant is a low-growing shrub that can survive in harsh conditions and is found throughout the Arctic tundra region. The dwarf willow is important in the Arctic tundra ecosystem, providing food and shelter for many animals.